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The Scientific Technology Principles of Nitrile Foaming Gloves Preparation

Nitrile ultra-fine foamed gloves are an innovative type of industrial gloves. Compared with traditional gloves, they have unique material structure and performance characteristics. One of the most notable features is the tiny bubble structure, which provides full protection and sufficient breathability for hands during work, keeping them dry, clean, and odorless. This makes these gloves widely applicable in fields such as construction, industry, daily life, and food processing.

In order to help you understand the preparation method and scientific principles of ultra-fine foamed gloves when making purchases, AMSAFE PPE technical team has publicly disclosed the experimental details of nitrile ultra-fine foamed gloves conducted in 2022. This includes material properties, material ratios, preparation process, and other technical details. By gaining a deep understanding of these principles and preparation methods, our customers can better comprehend the excellent performance and scientific foundation behind the wide application of ultra-fine foamed gloves.

A total of five experimental formulas were publicly announced by AMSAFE PPE technical team this time for comparison.

Formula and Process for the First Type of Nitrile Foam Gloves:

Formula Materials

Before preparing the nitrile ultrafine foam gloves, various components need to be carefully selected, including:

  1. Antioxidant: Options include 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, 4-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol, or 4,4′-bis(α.α-dimethylbenzyl)diphenylamine.
  2. Diffusion agent: Common choices are sodium methylnaphthalene sulfonate or sodium dibutylnaphthalene sulfonate.
  3. Thickening agent: Sodium polyacrylate, casein, or carboxymethyl cellulose sodium can be used.
  4. Foaming agent: Options include dioctyl phthalate (DOP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), potassium oleate, and sodium ricinoleic acid according to specific needs.
  5. Slurry viscosity: The viscosity needs to be maintained within the range of 1000~3000 mPa·s.

Preparation Process Steps

Step One: Preparation of Foaming Slurry

Firstly, prepare the nitrile ultrafine foaming slurry to ensure accurate weight proportions of each component. This slurry will serve as the basis for glove preparation.

Step Two: Immersion and Coating

Immerse knitted glove blanks in a coagulant solution and then undergo coating treatment. In this process, calcium nitrate, calcium chloride, zinc chloride mixed with methanol or ethanol can be used as coagulants. Prior to immersion, mechanical foaming is performed to achieve a foam volume of 10~30%, followed by rubber dipping at a mold temperature of 60~80℃.

Step Three: Pre-sulfurization and Surface Treatment

Immerse the treated gloves in a surface treatment agent and undergo pre-sulfurization. The surface treatment agent is typically a mixture of methanol, foaming agent, and acetic acid, with precise control over their mass ratios. Sulfurization drying conditions include a temperature range of 72~78℃ and a pre-sulfurization time of 15~25 minutes.

Step Four: Water Soaking Cleaning

Perform water soaking cleaning on the pre-sulfurized gloves to remove residues. Water soaking cleaning conditions include a water temperature range of 25~35℃ and a soaking time of 25~35 minutes.

Step Five: High-temperature Sulfurization Drying

Finally, perform high-temperature sulfurization drying on the gloves after water soaking cleaning to obtain nitrile ultrafine foam gloves. The conditions for high-temperature sulfurization drying need to be maintained at 95~115℃ for a sulfurization time of 50~70 minutes.

By using this specific formula and process, the resulting nitrile ultrafine foam gloves exhibit excellent softness, breathability, elasticity, wear resistance, and grip strength.

Formula and Process of the Second Type of Nitrile Foam Gloves

Preparation of Nitrile Ultrafine Foam Slurry

In this step, we will prepare the slurry for nitrile ultrafine foam gloves, which includes the following weight fractions of each component:

  • Nitrile rubber: 1000 parts
  • Bayer water-based PU: 100 parts
  • Potassium oleate (10wt%): 30 parts
  • Abrasives: 45 parts
  • Water: 200 parts

Ensure that the viscosity of the slurry is maintained at 1600mpa.s.

Specifically, the abrasives include the following weight fractions of each component:

  • Sulfur: 15 parts
  • Zinc oxide: 26 parts
  • p-cresol (2.6-di-t-butyl): 10 parts
  • Titanium dioxide: 22 parts
  • Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) (3wt%): 10 parts
  • Sodium methylnaphthalene sulfonate:5parts -Water :90parts

Step Two: Immersion and Foaming

Firstly, immerse knitted gloves in a coagulant, which is a mixture of calcium nitrate and methanol with a mass ratio of3∶100 , for coagulant treatment. Next, foam the slurry under mechanical conditions to achieve a foaming amount of20%. Then, while maintaining mold temperature at70℃ , immerse coagulated gloves into foamed slurry for impregnation and uniform coating treatment.

Step Three:Surface Treatment and Pre-sulfurization

After dipping in latex,wait for7 seconds before immersing in surface treatment agent. This surface treatment agent consists of methanol,potassium oleate,and acetic acid with a mass ratioof20∶0.3∶1. Then, after pre-sulfurization at a temperature of75℃ and for a duration of20 minutes,the gloves are dried.

Step Four: Cleaning

Soak the pre-sulfurized gloves in water at30℃ for30 minutes to clean them.

Step Five: Vulcanization and Final Glove Preparation

Finally, vulcanize the cleaned gloves at a drying temperature of105℃ for60 minutes to obtain the final nitrile ultrafine foam gloves.

Formulation and Process of the Third Type of Nitrile Foam Gloves

Step 1: Preparation of Nitrile Ultrafine Foam Slurry

  1. Prepare nitrile ultrafine foam slurry with the following weight ratios of each component:
    • Nitrile rubber: 800 parts
    • Bayer water-based PU: 100 parts
    • 10wt% sodium ricinoleate: 20 parts
    • Ball mill material: 30 parts
    • Water: 150 parts
    • Viscosity of slurry: 1000mpa.s
  2. The composition of ball mill material includes:
    • Sulfur: 12 parts
    • Zinc oxide: 22 parts
    • p-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin (PTBP):10 parts
    • Titanium dioxide :20parts – Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) :3wt%:8parts – Dibutyl naphthalene sulfonic acid sodium salt :3parts – Water :80parts

Step Two: Soaking and Coagulant Treatment

  1. Immerse knitted gloves in coagulant, which is a mixture of calcium chloride and ethanol with a mass ratio of 1∶100, then perform dripping coagulant treatment.
  2. Mechanically foam the slurry to achieve a foaming amount of15%. Immerse the gloves treated with coagulant into the foaming slurry and perform dripping pulp homogenization treatment.

Step Three:Sulfuration and Surface Treatment

  1. After dipping in latex, immerse the gloves again in surface treatment agent, which consists of methanol, potassium oleate, and acetic acid with a mass ratioof18∶0.2∶1.
  2. Perform pre-sulfuration at a temperature of 72℃ for 15 minutes, then proceed to drying.

Step Four: Cleaning

Soak the pre-sulfurized gloves in water at 25℃ for 35 minutes and clean them.

Step Five: Sulfuration and Drying

Finally, sulfurize the cleaned gloves at a temperature of115℃ for50minutes to prepare nitrile ultrafine foam gloves.

Formula and Process for the Fourth Type of Nitrile Foam Gloves

Step 1: Preparation of Nitrile Ultrafine Foam Slurry

In the process of preparing the fourth type of nitrile foam gloves, it is necessary to first prepare the nitrile ultrafine foam slurry. This slurry includes the following weight fractions of various components:

  • Nitrile rubber: 1200 parts
  • Water-based PU: 100 parts
  • Potassium oleate (10wt%): 40 parts
  • Abrasive material: 60 parts
  • Water: 250 parts

These components are mixed to form a slurry with a viscosity of 3000mpa.s.

It is worth noting that the composition of the abrasive material includes the following weight fractions of various components:

  • Sulfur: 16 parts
  • Zinc oxide: 28 parts
  • 4.4′-Diphenylamine (α, α-dimethylbenzylidene):10 parts
  • Titanium dioxide:24parts -Cheese powder(3wt%):12parts -Sodium methylnaphthalenesulfonate :7parts -Water :100parts

Step2:Curing Agent Treatment and Mechanical Foaming

Next, immerse knitted gloves in curing agent, which consists of a mixture of zinc chloride and methanol in a mass ratioof5∶100. The gloves are then treated with dripping coagulant. Then, mechanically foamthe slurry to achieve a foaming amountof25%. Under mold temperature at72℃ , immerse cured gloves into foaming slurryand perform dripping pulp uniform treatment.

Step3:Surface Treatment and Pre-sulfurization

Inthe next step during preparation,the dipped glovesare immersed in surface treatment agent after6 seconds.The mass ratio of the surface treatment agent is 22∶0.4∶1, composed of methanol, dioctyl phthalate and acetic acid. Then, pre-sulfurization is carried out at a temperature of78℃ for15 minutes,and the gloves are dried.

Step4: Water Soaking Cleaning

Soak the pre-sulfurized gloves in water at35℃ for25 minutes to clean them.

Step5: Vulcanization and Final Glove Preparation

Inthe final step,the gloves that have been soaked and cleaned are vulcanized by drying them at95℃ for70 minutes,to obtain the final nitrile ultrafine foam gloves.

Formula and Process of the Fifth Type of Nitrile Foam Gloves

Step 1: Preparation of Nitrile Ultrafine Foam Slurry

  1. Prepare nitrile ultrafine foam slurry, which consists of the following weight fractions of each component:
    • Nitrile rubber 1000 parts
    • Water-based PU 100 parts
    • Potassium oleate (10wt% concentration) 30 parts
    • Ball mill material 50 parts
    • Water 220 parts
  2. Set the viscosity of the slurry to be 2000mpa.s.

The composition of the ball mill material includes the following weight fractions:

  • Sulfur 14 parts
  • Zinc oxide 25 parts
  • p-cresol (2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) 10 parts
  • Titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder 21 parts
  • Sodium polyacrylate (3wt%) solution as a dispersant/stabilizer agent for TiO2 particles in water phase system. The sodium polyacrylate is used at a level sufficient to provide good dispersion stability without causing excessive foaming or viscosity increase in aqueous systems containing dispersed TiO2 particles. It is typically used at levels from about .01 to about .05 wt % based on total solids content.
  • Sodium dinonylnaphthalenesulfonate as anionic surfactant/dispersing agent for pigmentary titanium dioxide in waterborne coating compositions. It is typically used at levels from about .01 to about .05 wt % based on total solids content. Sodium salt form can be obtained by neutralizing with NaOH or other suitable base. Other salts such as potassium salt are also useful but may not have equivalent performance characteristics compared with sodium salt form. In some embodiments, it may be desirable that the sodium dinonylnaphthalenesulfonate is present in an amount of from about 0.01 to about 1 wt % based on total solids content.
  • Water 85 parts

Step 2: Coagulant Treatment and Mechanical Foaming

  1. Immerse knitted gloves in a coagulant, which is a mixture of calcium nitrate and ethanol with a mass ratio of 2:100.
  2. Perform coagulant treatment.
  3. Foam the slurry mechanically to achieve a foaming volume of 22%.
  4. Under the condition that the mold temperature is set at 70℃, immerse the gloves treated with coagulant into the foam slurry and perform slurry coating.

Step 3: Pre-sulfurization and Drying

  1. Perform surface treatment on the gloves after immersion in latex, using a treating agent composed of methanol, castor oil sodium oleate, and acetic acid with a mass ratio of 20:0.3:1.
  2. Carry out pre-sulfurization at a temperature of 76℃ for a duration of 20 minutes.
  3. Proceed with drying treatment.

Step 4: Cleaning

  1. Immerse pre-sulfurized and dried gloves in water at a temperature of 30℃ for cleaning purposes for approximately28 minutes.

Step5:Final Sulfurization and Glove Production

1.Sulfurize cleaned gloves at a set temperatureof100℃for65minutes 2.Produce final nitrile ultrafine foam gloves

Through this preparation method, we can obtain high-quality nitrile ultrafine foam gloves with excellent grip performanceand comfortability,suitable for wide applicationsin medicaland industrial fields.

Performance Testing

Performance testing was conducted on the nitrile ultrafine foam gloves produced according to the above implementation examples and comparative proportions. The products were based on 15-gauge nylon knitted liners immersed in different proportioned slurries. The testing standards refer to EU EN388. Among them, the evaluation of slip resistance is based on the subjective assessment of 10 subjects wearing gloves and gripping a stainless steel rod (30mm in diameter, 200mm in length) coated with cutting oil:

Type 1: Very high clamping force, no slipping at all.

Type 2: High clamping force, minimal slipping.

Type 3: Slight clamping force, not easy to slide.

Type 4: Low clamping force, smooth.

Breathability was tested using the YG461E glove breathability tester from Wenzhou Ji Gao International.

It should be understood that this experiment is not limited to the specific implementation methods mentioned above. Those skilled in the art can make various modifications or changes within the scope of the claims without affecting the essence of this experiment and formulation.

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